How to Install the Solar Panel Safely?
Solar panel come in various sizes to satisfy a full range of applications. Each Solar panel is made of crystalline-silicon cells. To protect the cells from the most severe-environmental conditions, Solar panel are made of high transmission rate and low iron tempered glass, anti-aging encapsulation material, and high climate resistant and insulation back sheet by hot lamination, with anodized aluminum alloy frame and junction box.Solar panel are reliable, virtually maintenance free power supply, designed to operate efficiently in sunlight. By Solar panel, the solar radiant energy is transformed into electrical energy for using. Solar panel, usually be used as one fittings of PV solar system. A set of basic PV solar system is consisted of PV Solar panel, Solar regulator, solar inverter, and storage battery.
Solar panel can be used in roof PV solar systems, PV stations, building, and other electric generation application etc widely.
The mechanical and electrical installation of solar systems should be performed in accordance with all applicable coded; including electrical codes, building coded, and electric utility interconnect requirements.
Requirements may also vary with system voltage, and for DC or AC application.
How to Choose the installation angle of Solar Panel?
Solar Panel installation Mounting site
Solar Panel can be used on land except for corrosive salt area and sulfurous area.
Excluded applications include, but are not limited to, installations where Solar Panel are likely to come in contact with any salt water or where likely to become partially or wholly submerged in fresh or salt water, examples of which include use on boats, docks and buoys. Don’t install modules in a location where it would be immersed in water or continually exposed to water from a sprinkler or fountain etc.
Modules are designed for a maximum allowable design pressure of 50 pounds per square foot, about 2400Pa, which may correspond to a nominal wind speed of approximately 130 km/h in certain circumstances.
Actual maximum allowable wind speed may be influenced by module type, mounting configuration, location, and other factors. In no case should modules be exposed to pressures greater than 50 pounds per square foot of uniformly distributed wind, snow, or other loading.
Not install Solar Panel near naked flame or flammable materials.
When choosing a site, avoid trees, buildings or obstructions. Modules should be mounted to maximize direct exposure to sunlight and to eliminate or minimize shadowing. Even partial shadowing can substantially reduce module and system output. Furthermore, partial shadowing can elevate the shaded portion internal temperature, which may lower output and shorten module life.
Solar Panel Orientation of installations
Modules may be mounted at any angle from a vertical orientation to a horizontal one. The appropriate fixed tilt angle and azimuth orientation should be used in order to maximize the exposure to sunlight.
Incorrect orientation of modules installation will result in loss of power output. Modules connected in series should be installed at same orientation and angle. Different orientation or angle may cause loss of power output due to difference of amount of sunlight exposed to the modules.
In the Northern Hemisphere, Solar Panel should face south, and in the Southern Hemisphere, Solar Panel should face north.
Solar Panel tilt angle
Solar Panel produce the most power when they are pointed directly at the sun. For installations where Solar Panel are mounted to a permanent structure, Solar Panel should be titled for optimum winter performance. As a rule, if the PV system power production is adequate in the winter. It will be satisfactory during the rest of the year. The Solar Panel tilt angle is measured between the Solar Panel and the ground.
Use fasteners to fasten the Solar Panel to the mounting support structure. Solar Panel should be bolted to support structures through mounting holes located in the frame’s back flanges only. Stainless-steel bolts, with nuts, washers, and locks washers, are recommended for module mounting. Creation of additional holes for mounting is not recommended and will invalidate the warranty. Solar Panel should not be mounted by supports at the ends.
Mounting support structure should withstand forces from wind and snowfall pressure etc. Mounting support structure should use proper materials and corrosive treatment.
Installation the Solar Panel should has proper ventilation. A clearance of 4.5 inches (about 115mm) or more behind the Solar Panel is recommended to permit air circulation and cooler solar panel operation. Elevated temperatures lower operating voltage and power, and shorten solar panel lifetime. Clearance of 1/4 inch (6.35mm) or more between solar panel is required to allow for thermal expansion of the frames.
How to wire solar panel on installation ?
Blocking diodes can prevent nighttime battery discharging caused and prevent solar panel from loss of array output and being damaged or destroyed by reverse current flow.
Blocking diodes should be installed in series with each solar panel or series string to prevent possible back flow of energy through the solar panel when solar panel or strings are connected in parallel or used in conjunction with a battery.
Whenever necessary to comply with local codes, use a fuse or circuit breaker, rated for the maximum series fuse rating of the module and the system voltage.
Always fuse the connections at the battery for safety. Refer to the solar panel rating label (on solar panel) for recommended fuse size. Also, refer to the charge controller owners manual.
All electrical components should have ratings equal or greater to the system rating. Do not exceed the maximum allowable system voltage as listed on the solar panel label.
All solar panel frames should be grounded for safety. The support structure must also be grounded unless they are mechanically connected by nut and bolts to the grounded solar panel.
Attach a separate ground wire to grounding holes on solar panel frame with a self tapping screw. solar panel frame is provided with grounding holes. Stainless-steel bolts, with nuts, washers, and locks washers, are recommended for module grounding. The ground wire should be at least the same size as the electrical conductors, ground wires greater than 10AWG is recommended.4)solar panel Wiring
solar panel are equipped with factory installed wires and quick connectors. Modules have been designed to be easily interconnected in series.
One solar panel has a pair of male and female waterproof cables and connectors for electrical connection, that are pre-wired inside the junction box. The cables have obvious marks of the positive and the negative.
The connectors at the opposite end of these wires allow easy series connection of adjacent solar panel by firmly inserting the male connector of a solar panel into the female connector of an adjacent solar panel until the connector is fully seated.
For a series electrical connection, should connect positive (+) connector of the first solar panel to the negative (-) connector of the following solar panel. For a parallel electrical connection, should connect positive (+) connector of the first solar panel to the positive (+) connector of the following solar panel.
The cable typically used to interconnect the solar panel should be stranded or solid copper single-conductor type, rated sunlight resistant, for solar panel and solar panel wiring that is exposed to weather, from 12AWG (4.0mm2) up to 14AWG(2.5mm2) gauge copper wire.
The maximum and minimum diameters of the cable that may be used with the cable connector are 8mm and 6mm respectively. A separate return wire or wires may be required to run the positive and negative terminations of the series string of modules to the load. Male and/or female connectors pre-attached to wires may be used at the string terminations for return wire connections and/or for source circuit box terminations. solar panel have bypass diode(s) installed.
How to Maintenance the Solar Panel?
It is not uncommon for a remote site to be checked but once per year. Under most conditions, normal rainfall is sufficient to keep the Solar Panel glass clean.
Clean the glass with a soft cloth using mild detergent and water. Solar Panel that are mounted, fiat ( 0°tilt andle) should be cleaned more often, as they will not self-clean as effectively as Solar Panel mounted at a 15°tilt or greater.
It is advisable to perform periodic inspection of the Solar Panel for damage to glass, backskin, frame and support structure. Check electrical connections for loose connections and corrosion. Check if mounting support structure and modules are loose. Check connections of cables, connectors, and grounding. Change Solar Panel must be the same kind and type, if need. Solar Panel can operate effectively without ever being washed, although removal of dirt from the front glass can increase output. The glass can be washed with a wet sponge or cloth, wear rubber gloves for electrical insulation.
Solar Panel Safety precautions
Solar Panel installation and operation should be performed by qualified personnel only. Children should not be allowed near the solar electric installation.
Avoid electrical hazards when installing, wiring, operating and maintaining the module. Solar Panel produce DC electricity when exposed to light and therefore can produce an electrical shock or burn. Solar Panel produce voltage even when not connected to an electrical circuit or load. Solar Panel produce nearly full voltage when exposed to as little as 5% of full sunlight and both current and power increase with light intensity. Do not touch live parts of cables and connectors. As an added precaution, use insulated tools and rubber gloves when working with Solar Panel in sunlight.
Fall of Solar Panel from high place will cause death, injury or damage. Do not drop Solar Panel or allow objects to fall on Solar Panel, never leave a Solar Panel unsupported or unsecured. If a module should fail, the glass can break a Solar Panel with broken glass cannot be repaired and must not be used.
When installing or working with Solar Panel or wiring, cover module face completely with opaque material to halt production of electricity. Solar Panel have no on/off switch. Solar Panel when exposed to sunlight generate high voltage and are dangerous, Solar Panel can be rendered inoperative only by removing them from sunlight, or by fully covering the front surface with opaque cloth, cardboard, or other completely opaque material, or by working with Solar Panel face down on a smooth, flat surface when installing or maintaining.
Do not artificially concentrate sunlight on the Solar Panel.
Solar Panel can produce higher output than the rated specifications. Industry standard ratings are made at conditions of 1000W/㎡ and 25℃ cell temperature. Reflection from snow or water can increase sunlight and therefore boost current and power. In addition, colder temperatures can substantially increase voltage and power.
Solar Panel are intended for use in terrestrial applications only, thus excluding aerospace or maritime conditions or use with sunlight concentration.
It is recommended that the Solar Panel remains packed in the box until time of installation.
Work only under dry conditions, with a dry Solar Panel and tools, since sparks may be produced, do not install Solar Panel where flammable gases or vapors are present.
Do not drill holes into Solar Panel frame as it will void warranty. Solar Panel ate constructed frame as it will void warranty.
Handled with care, if the front glass is broken or if the polymer backskin is tom, contact with any module surface or the frame can produce electrical shock. Particularly when the Solar Panel is wet, broken or damaged modules must be disposed of properly. Do not disassemble, bend, impact by sharp objects, walk on, and throw or drop etc. keep back surface free from foreign objects. Avoid sharp edges.
Use Solar Panel for its intended function only follows all Solar Panel manufacturers’ instructions. Do not disassemble the module, or remove any part or label installed by the manufacturer. Do not treat the back of the Solar Panel with paint or adhesives.
If not otherwise specified, it is recommended that requirements of the latest local, national or regional electrical codes be followed.
Retain this installation manual for future reference.
The electrical characteristics are within ±5 percent of the indicated values of Isc, Voc, and Pmax under standard test conditions (irradiance of 100mW/㎝2, AM 1.5 spectrum, and a cell temperature of 25℃(77°F).
Under normal conditions, a photovoltaic Solar Panel is likely to experience conditions that produce more current and/or voltage than reported at standard test conditions. Accordingly, the values of Isc and Voc marked on this module should be multiplied by a factor of 1.25 when determining component voltage ratings, conductor ampacities, fuse sizes, and size of controls connected to the PV output.
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